Journal of Transactions in Systems Engineering <p><strong>Journal of Transactions in Systems Engineering (JTSE)</strong> is an open-access and peer-reviewed journal that provides the latest research and developments in all theoretical and practical aspects and fields of engineering applications, informatics, and engineering systems design. The journal publishes three times a year (January, June, and October). All the content is freely available without charge to the user or his/her institution. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author. This is in accordance with the DOAJ and BOAI definition of open access..</p> en-US (Assoc. Prof. Dr. Klodian Dhoska) (Administrator) Thu, 28 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0100 OJS 60 Exploring Phosphate Sorption on Thermally Modified Kaolinite <div><span lang="EN-GB">The aim of this study is to investigate the capability and mechanism of phosphorus adsorption present in water through thermally treated kaolin. For this purpose, batch experiments are conducted to treat synthetic water samples with phosphate content using kaolin sourced from the northern region of Albania. The kinetics and mechanism of adsorption are examined. Experimental results indicated that a contact time of 3 hours achieves adsorption equilibrium, with the pseudo second-order model providing the best fit. Both Langmuir and Freundlich models describe the adsorption process, suggesting a combination of monolayer and multilayer adsorption. Furthermore, kaolin pre-treatment temperatures up to 500°C have minimal effect on adsorption capacity, apparently attributed to dehydration of bound water and densification of the clay structure.</span></div> Sonila Vito, Ilirjana Boci, Adelajda Muçi, Maria Hoxhaj, Sidorela Vishkulli Copyright (c) 2024 Thu, 28 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0100 Powering Autonomous Sensors Using Radio Frequency Harvesting for IoT Applications <div><span lang="EN-GB">The abundance of connected devices in modern cities and metropolises has contributed to the development of intelligent infrastructure and networks. More specifically, the integration of devices within the Internet of Things (IoT) has become integral to smart cities, enhancing various aspects such as safety, congestion management, and providing real-time information to users. However, the deployment of IoT networks relies on autonomous sensors capable of collecting and transmitting data in real-time to either other devices or centralized units. Having a reliable and non-stop power source to maintain the sensor operational 24/7 poses a challenge, that is why this paper will focus on analysing radio frequency harvesting, to create a continuous power output for the sensors. Mobile networks spectrums are preferred in our case due to the high-power density they offer, compared to other radio technologies. The RF (Radio Frequency) harvester circuit is built from several components, the Long-Term Evolution (LTE) band antenna, the coupler circuit, the rectifier circuit and the load, which in our case will be the sensor. Various circuit elements are evaluated and compared, addressing the requirements of output voltage and power. The findings from this research provide insights into the practicality of RF harvesting as a sustainable energy solution for autonomous sensors within IoT networks, paving the way in the evolving landscape of connected devices.</span></div> Ronild Hako, Evjola Spaho Copyright (c) 2024 Sun, 05 May 2024 00:00:00 +0200 Descriptive Analysis of Cybersecurity Awareness Among Smartphone Users in Higher Education <p>In an era defined by technology evolution, cybersecurity awareness has emerged as a critical concern for smartphone users, especially within academic environments. This paper investigates the results of the survey "Assessing Cybersecurity Awareness Among Smartphone Users" conducted among students in Albanian Higher Education Institutions. The study evaluates dimensions such as Security Behavior, Security Intention, Influence of People and Media, Perceived Usefulness, and Perceived Ease of Use. Demographic analysis encompasses variables like age, gender, educational level, employment status, IT background, and smartphone operating system, providing vital context for understanding cybersecurity awareness. Using Likert-scale responses and established methodologies, the research identifies significant differences in cybersecurity practices between students with and without formal education in Information Security. It emphasizes the pivotal role of education in promoting informed cybersecurity behaviors and calls for targeted educational strategies to bolster digital resilience.</p> Enxhia Sala Copyright (c) 2024 Thu, 04 Jul 2024 00:00:00 +0200